Unique domain frequency trends


In addition to the record increase in the number of URLs identified and actioned in 2023, we continue to find and remove an increasing number of unique domains hosting child sexual abuse. 

It is not possible to confirm whether the overall global availability of domains has increased or whether we are simply more proficient in finding new sites; anecdotal signals however suggest that it is likely that both factors are at play and are jointly contributing to year-on-year increases.

  • The number of unique domains identified increased by 8% from 5,416 in 2022 to 5,856 in 2023, representing an increase of 440 additional unique domains.
  • Of the 5,856 unique second level domains identified as carrying child sexual abuse material, over half (3,026 or 52%) were classified as being dedicated to the sale and/or distribution of child abuse images for financial gain.

For clarity, the diagram below sets out the domain naming conventions used throughout this report.


Number of unique domains used to host child sexual abuse material